Saturday, March 14, 2020

10 Essay Topics on History What Is Known About Aztec Culture

10 Essay Topics on History What Is Known About Aztec Culture The Aztecs are undoubtedly one of the most unusual cultures that ever existed. For centuries people have been thinking with horrified fascination about these people that combined complicated social structure, educational system and impressive scientific and cultural development with human sacrifice on massive scale, cannibalism and constant wars of conquest. Here are some Aztec culture facts that can make an awesome essay. Human Sacrifice Was the Basis of Aztec Culture and Religion Probably the first thing everybody thinks hearing about the Aztecs is human sacrifice – and for a good reason. All pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures practiced it to this or that extent, but the Aztecs took it to a completely new level. Gods Sacrificed Themselves for Humans’ Sake According to Aztec mythology, gods sacrificed their lives to sustain the fading sun and save humankind, and this made humans indebted to them for all eternity. Moreover, the sacrifice of gods was not a single act, but more of a continuous process, which required constant reenactment. The power of gods kept the sun alive, and to give gods this power, they had to give them blood and hearts, which were considered to be fragments of the sun’s heat. The Purpose of Wars Was to Get More Captives Aztecs divided time into 52-year cycles and fearfully ended the end of each – if the gods didn’t receive enough sacrifices throughout the cycle, the sun would go out and the world would end. The main reason for Flower Wars the Aztecs constantly waged on their neighbors was to provide enough captives to fill the sacrifice quota. Even Aztec war strategy and tactics were mainly devised to wound and capture rather than kill as many enemies as possible. The Aztecs Sacrificed 20 000 People per Year Human sacrifice was an extremely important part of everyday life in Aztec society – it was carried out during each of their many festivals and for special occasions and was accompanied by elaborate rituals and done by various methods according to which god it was intended for. The most popular method was the extraction of the heart, but victims were often burned, flayed, drowned, starved and decapitated. Afterwards priests would often wear their skins (they were considered holy relics and symbolized rebirth) and cannibalize their corpses. And there were a lot of them – during the opening ceremony of one particularly big temple, as reported in their codices, they slaughtered between 10,000 and 80,400 people in the course of four days, while normally settling for about 20,000 per year. The Aztecs Capital Was among the Biggest Cities of Europe Despite their extremely warlike nature and penchant for torture and human sacrifice, the Aztecs were far from being uncultured, which probably made them a great deal more disturbing and frightening. At the zenith of its glory their capital, Tenochtitlan, housed between 200,000 and 300,000 people, by far eclipsing most European cities of the time, with possible exceptions of Constantinople and Venice. The Aztecs Were the First to Introduce Universal Education The Aztecs were also probably the first nation in the world to ever establish the system of universal mandatory education – it took place before the age of 14 and was carried out by parents under supervision of authorities. Among other things, children had to learn the so-called â€Å"sayings of the old† – a collection of statements that embodied the Aztec ideals and conditioned them for future service. After 14 children attended more advanced schools, divided into two types: the ones dedicated to theoretical sciences like astronomy, writing, mathematics etc., and the ones dealing with military and practical education. All Aztecs Were Warriors Aztec civilization was based on domination over the surrounding peoples and aggressive expansion, and the Aztecs themselves were a nation of warriors from the outset. Being initially a small and insignificant migratory tribe, the Aztecs managed to conquer almost the entire Mesoamerican region in a little more than a century, and warfare occupied one of the central positions in their lifestyle and social arrangement. Aztec empire had a relatively small standing army for its size – only the members of elite warrior societies which were extremely hard to get into, served as full-time military forces. However, military training was an integral part of basic education, and every male Aztec was prepared to the role of a soldier since childhood. Therefore, during military campaigns large numbers of warriors were drafted from commoners. They Took Prisoners to Climb the Social Ladder Warfare was also the only way for a man of low birth to improve his station in life – through showing bravery on the field of battle and, in particular, through capturing enemy warriors alive for the further use as sacrifices. After taking four prisoners, one was accepted into one of elite warrior societies, like Eagle and Jaguar warriors. Taking six prisoners and more led to the greatest possible honor – to be accepted into the most prestigious society, Cuachicqueh, or the Shorn Ones (called so because they shaved their heads except for one braid over the left ear), who served as elite shock troops and swore to kill any of their number who makes a step back during a battle. The Aztecs Used Cacao Beans as Currency Trade was an important component of Aztec everyday life: their merchants travelled all across Mesoamerica and beyond and were united into exclusive guilds, and every large settlement had regular market days on which all kinds of merchandise exchanged hands. Basic currency for all transactions was cacao beans which had to be exported from lowlands. They were used mostly for small purchases; for large transactions the Aztecs used standardized lengths of cotton cloth of varying quality and value (from 65 to 300 beans). The Aztecs Had Some Rather Unusual Laws Aztec empire had a code of laws that regulated everyday life and meted out punishments. However, by our standards these regulations and punishments sometimes look rather bizarre. For example, death penalty (usually through strangulation) was common for serious crimes, which included murder, theft and public drunkenness (unless you were over 70 years old). The most usual punishment for less serious offences was to have your house demolished. These included, for example, petit larceny and wearing of clothes too lavish for your social status. The Aztecs will undoubtedly continue to intrigue us for many years to come. Fortunately, the body of evidence telling us about them is rather large compared with other Mesoamerican cultures, which means that you will have a lot of material for your history essay! References: A. Caso, The Aztecs, People of the Sun (tr. 1958, repr. 1967). Berdan, Frances F., Richard E. Blanton, Elizabeth H. Boone, Mary G. Hodge, Michael E. Smith and Emily Umberger (1996) Aztec Imperial Strategies. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC. Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. (1998) Huitzilopochtlis Conquest: Aztec Ideology in the Archaeological Record. Cambridge Archaeological Journal. Durn, Fray Diego (1964) The Aztecs: The History of the Indians of New Spain. Translated by Fernando Horcasitas and Doris Heyden. Orion Press, New York. Kellogg, Susan (1995) Law and the Transformation of Aztec Culture, 1500-1700. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Leà ³n-Portilla, Miguel (1963) Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nhuatl Mind. Univ. Oklahoma Press, Norman. Smith, Michael E. (2003) The Aztecs. 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Museum of Islamic Art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Museum of Islamic Art - Essay Example The Museum of Islamic Art, Doha Islamic art and culture goes back 1,400 years ago to the years of the Prophet through to the eras of the Caliphs and Ottoman Empire. Qatar has been known for the oil boom which led to massive and large scale construction works in the country in the past three decades. Many landmark buildings have been built within this period in strategic locations to maintain the unique features of the region. The Museum of Islamic Art (MIA) is located on the south end of the Doha bay and it is a major building located on the edge of the Doha harbor and it has unique and distinct features that makes it a might build that depicts Islamic arts in architecture, usage and construction. Project Initiation and Location The Museum for Islamic Art was designed by the architect, Ioeh Ming Pei who blended Islamic tradition and monumental modernism to create the structure (Ourousoff 31). The project was commenced in 2004 when the Qatari government announced the desire to build a major structure that will reflect Qatar's bid to become the cultural center of the Arab world (Skinner 1). Actual work and construction activities commenced in 2005 and this ultimately led to the completion of the project in 2006. The project reflected Qatar's quest to present itself as one of the most prosperous economies in the Islamic world with the highest gross domestic products per capita in the world (Skinner 1). This was reflected in the magnitude of the project and the resources committed to its completion. The location of the MIA in the city of Doha also makes it an extremely distinct work of engineering because it required a cross-functional role that involved marine engineers aside the normal construction site to ensure that the project remained within reasonable range. The project is located on a newly created Peninsular or man-made island that is protected by a seawall just off the harbor of Doha in the south of the city (Ourousoff 33). The project is meant to blend a set of different elements and present the Qatari nation and the Islamic world on an exceptional pedestal. First of all, the building involved an architecture that reflected elements of Medieval Arabic architecture that incorporated elements of palaces amongst great Arab leaders. Secondly, the building involved important and carefully calibrated to provide exhibitions for various categories of Islamic history and culture. This include the arrangement of exhibition spaces, galleries, library and an auditorium. The venue is meant to exhibit elements of various stages in Islamic history and will display works of art, numismatics, manuscripts and weapons. Socio-Cultural Elements of Qatar & the Islamic World it Depicts The Museum of Islamic Art was a project that was initiated under the auspices of Qatar's hereditary Al-Thani dynasty as an attempt to enhance Qatar's cultural status. To this end, the MIA was meant to bring together the relics, audience and artists to develop the cultural systems and structures of the country for the future (Hudson para 6). Upon deciding to build the museum, the Qatari Museum Authority, headed by Sheikha Mayassa al-Thani called upon the then 86-year old IM Pei to draw the blueprints and architectural plan for the museum (Hudson para 2). The Chinese-American IM Pei was called for retirement to assist in drawing

Monday, February 10, 2020

Current Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Current - Research Paper Example It there for means that Eli Lilly and company is basically the bedrock or pillar of Lilly Endowment. However, Lilly Endowment remains a motivator for the pharmaceutical company, and hence it affects some of its business and management strategies. Lilly Endowment entails some community and volunteer programs in the community. It is believed that its budget is greatly financed by Eli Lilly and company and this means that the pharmaceutical company would do anything to make gain, to put in a capacity to support Eli Endowment. This could mean cutting on expenses like reduction of labor, adoption of modern and effective digital management strategies like e-human resource management (E-hrm) to reduce the number of workers hence reduce on the labor expenses among others. Furthermore, the pharmaceutical company may have to organize some workshops and seminars to encourage the beneficiaries and officials from the Lilly endowment and this could mean some cost and time as well. Some senior management team are always required to mentor the youths and women in the Lilly Endowment and this means they have to forego their core roles in the Eli Lilly and company to encourage some members of the Lilly Endowment Inc. Lilly Endowment was founded by the core owner of Eli Lilly and company and his three core values revolved around community development, education and religion among others. This means that the same principles must be incorporated in the pharmaceutical management strategy. The element of community development could be related to its CSR which entails building schools for the locals, initiating clean water projects in the community, constructing health institutions and funding certain health related projects to eradicate epidemic like HIV and TB among others. The company is known to donating food and pharmaceuticals to the less fortunate like the street homes and elderly homes

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Marketing Mix Essay Example for Free

Marketing Mix Essay Product refers to the creation or design of a good or service. It is here that the process begins in the life of a product. In this part of the marketing mix the design is made, the name is created, and even the packaging of the good is decided upon. This is where a product needs to be created in a way that makes the product marketable for its intended target. (Manktelow, 2013) Place is the process in when it is decided where the product is going to be sold and how the product will be distributed. Many questions are answered in this part of the process such as â€Å"Where do buyers look for this product? , â€Å"What channels of distribution should be used? †, â€Å"Do we need to use a sales force, attend trade shows, or send samples to companies? †, and â€Å"What are competitors doing? † (Manktelow, 2013) For example, a company producing power tools would not want to distribute their goods in a boutique. The intended customer base is not likely going to be found here. The correct distribution would be in a store where power tools are sold like Home Depot. While having a great product is important, you need to get it to the consumer in the most efficient manner. Price is where the value of the product is determined. Pricing is just as important as the product itself. No matter how great a product is, it needs to be priced so that consumers will be willing to purchase it and so that it will make a profit that is worth investing in. Pricing also can offer a chance to get a leg up on the competition. In order to gain an advantage in market share a company may decide to price their product slightly lower than their competitor’s price. (Manktelow, 2013) Promotion is how a company creates their promotional strategy, advertising, and public relations. Promotion is extremely important in making the consumer aware of the product. It is also very important that the promotional strategy is aimed at the target audience. (Manktelow, 2013) For example, to promote a new basketball shoe advertising could be created featuring a professional basketball player and the product could be heavily advertised during basketball games on television when the intended audience is going to be watching the game. PayPal, Inc. is a payment processor that operates primarily in processing payments on the internet. In 2010 PayPal began to push a new motto of â€Å"Anytime, Anywhere, Anyhow†. PayPal was taking their online payment services and moving them into the physical world. In order to achieve this PayPal began pushing their mobile payment services to develop products that would help to achieve this vision. PayPal required a product that would allow people to truly use PayPal anywhere at any time. In 2012 PayPal launched PayPal Here. PayPal here is a product that connects to a smartphone to allow merchants to accept credit card payments wherever their business may take them. To allow buyers the convenience of using PayPal anywhere, PayPal revamped the PayPal Mobile App. The PayPal Mobile App allows a person to send funds at any time using their smartphone. Whether it is sending money to a friend or paying for an item on eBay, the PayPal Mobile App allows buyers to use their PayPal account without having to be in front of their computer. The other product PayPal created for both merchants and for buyers is PayPal’s in-store checkout. In December of 2011 PayPal partnered with The Home Depot to unveil this new product and feature. Customers of the Home Depot no longer need to bring their wallet to the store with them. By simply entering their mobile number and PIN number they can pay with their PayPal account. Upon checking out the customer receives a text message and email receipt of their purchase. This video demonstrates the PayPal in-store checkout process. http://www. youtube. com/watch? feature=player_detailpagev=Q8P9qT9EIVk PayPal’s placement of the product was not as complicated as many companies selling a product like a hammer or shoes. The PayPal Here product is a way to use the PayPal Here service. Customers simply have to go to the PayPal website or PayPal Here App and request the PayPal here dongle. It is sent to the customer at no cost because the value is in the customer accepting payments using the PayPal Here service. This benefits PayPal in that they do not have to deal with major distribution channels in getting their product into the right store. They simply need to ship the product to the customer that asks for it off of the PayPal website. PayPal has structured their pricing to remain ahead of their primary competitor Square. PayPal charges 2. 7% per transaction to receive payments using the PayPal Here product. Square has a similar product and charges 2. 75% per transaction. The cost of the phone attachment for PayPal Here is free. This has allowed PayPal to keep up with their competitor. In order to effectively market this product PayPal needed to have a price that at least met that of their competitor in order to get people to use the product. PayPal decided to charge slightly less than their competitor in order to gain customers new to this technology and to sway some customers away from Square. Had the service not been available through a competitor, PayPal’s pricing may have been different. Having a price that meets or beats the competition shows that PayPal is marketing their product to not just to customers new to accepting mobile payments, but to those that are already accepting them which expands the market they are targeting. PayPal also offers other types of services other than just accepting payments on a mobile phone which creates more value for potential customers. PayPal has launched aggressive marketing campaigns through email and through banners on their website. PayPal has never advertised their products on television or radio and they did not start with the launch of PayPal Here. PayPal announced PayPal Here at a media event and let the media spread the word along with the advertising occurring through email and on the PayPal website. This helps PayPal save money in advertising and promotion while still promoting their product efficiently. PayPal’s intended targets for PayPal Here are small businesses and people who sell at events like trade shows, service (lawn care, plumbing, etc. ) who would like to be able to give their customers more options to pay for their services. The marketing mix is an effective way to help successfully market a product or service. It addresses every aspect that is needed in order to successfully prepare a product to be launched. The four P’s work together to help a company provide the consumer with what they want, get the product to the consumer that demands the product, sells at a price that benefits the company and the consumer, and will promote the product to the right audience. Without the proper use of the marketing mix a product could easily fail. A company could design a new product that may seem great, but if they do not market the product correctly the right people will not see it, buy it, or be aware of it. Without the sales, the life of a product can be short lived because of ineffective marketing. PayPal has shown an effective use of the marketing mix. PayPal identified a consumer need, PayPal designed a product and service that would meet the needs of the consumer, PayPal found an efficient way to deliver the product and service to the customer, PayPal provided a price that was slightly better than the price of their competitor to gain a market advantage, and PayPal effectively used word of mouth promotion and promotion through their own website to make consumers aware of this new innovative product that can meet their needs. It has been effective use of the marketing mix that has helped PayPal remain on top of the online payment processing world.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Life of my Dog Precious Essay -- Personal Narrative Pets Family Es

The Life of my Dog Precious Within the animal kingdom, few animals have the characteristics to co exist with humans. Dogs, however, are the exception. For centuries dogs have been known as man’s best friend. Throughout the test of time dogs have proven to be the most loyal and the truest friends. â€Å"Dogs are not just our proverbial best friends in the animal world but probably our oldest† (Phillips 12). With this in mind I understand the reason that my dog Precious is my most treasured and loyal friend. On December 24, 1993 I opened my mom’s purse to get some Tylenol and out popped a little puppy. Its fur was soft and blonde, she had freckles on her nose, and she had droopy eyes. It was a Cocker Spaniel. She was so adorable that my family and I decided to name her â€Å"Precious.† She was the greatest present anyone could have asked for. Precious, unlike most dogs, has lived an incredible life. She has been dog knapped three different times and taken to Georgia each time. She has been shot, ran over by a car, and experienced many other life threatening experiences. This dog has been through it all. After having her only two weeks, we decided to visit my grandmother. Precious did not like o be left alone, so when I looked around and noticed she was nowhere to be found, we all got a little worried. My family and I started searching all over the house. Finally, my grandmother heard a weird noise coming from the bathroom. Sure enough, it was Precious. She fallen in the toilet while trying to drink out of it, and could not get out. Thanks to my grandmother’s great hearing, Precious did not drown. Throughout Precious’s puppy years we had to repair many things that she destroyed. One ... ...eorgia. Last summer, right before I left to come to school, Precious was once again missing, and I was once again crying my eyes out. Instead of contacting our police or even driving down to Georgia, my parents contacted the police force in the area where the renters lived. They had an officer on dispatch drive by to see if they saw a little blonde Cocker Spaniel and there she was sitting in there lawn. The policeman told the people why he was there and quickly brought Precious home. One might think that dogs do not live an exciting life, but Precious has been on more road trips and lived through many life-threatening adventures than most humans. She is a wonderful pet and a great best friend. Obviously, she is adorable because she was stolen three times. She means the world to me and I do not know what I will do when she is gone for good.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Malcom X and Martin Luther King Jr. Essay

Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X are very prominent African American individuals throughout history. They fought for what they stood for but in many different ways. As we all know in history there are no two great men that are alike. Their many beliefs may have blossomed from the households they came from and how they grew up. King grew up in a middle class family and was well educated. While, Malcolm X grew up in an underprivileged environment that was very hostile with barely any schooling. Martin Luther King Jr. was always against violence, throughout his entire ministry. He always stood his ground, and he stood out because eventhough he may have been physically attacked, he never reacted with violence. Martin Luther King Jr. followed the Christian faith. Malcolm X was a Muslim, and believed in Muslim principles. His most famous line was â€Å"By any Means Necessary†. He believed in fighting back physically. Whatever had to be done to get freedom he was all for it whether it be violence or nonviolence. Although later in life he visited Jerusalem, and met other Muslims. He changed his views, and became nonviolent. Both Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. had uncompromising love for their people. They both wanted see Black people in the best possible position. They were both religious figures that used religious to provide structure, morality, courage, determination and unity in Black people. They were both killed before they reached their 40th birthday.They both stood 4 freedom,they were both assassinated and they both liked Afro-American women.Different religions but both were men of god. Malcolm X was a Muslim and Martin Luther King jr was a Christian. Malcolm X was a Black nationalists and Garveyite. Malcolm X did not believe in an integrated society between Blacks and Whites. Malcolm X believed that Black people should build a world for themselves controlled by themselves that specifically addressed the needs and desires unique to Black people. MLK wanted his movement to be peaceful, while X was a radical extremist who wanted A.A. rights to be violent..Martin Luther King wanted to get things accomplished without aggression or violence, and Malcolm X did not. Martin Luther King wanted everyone to coexist peacefully and wanted to be counted as an equal, and Malcolm X wanted there to be a clear segregation of the White people and Black people in America, with different areas for each to live, because he felt that they would never get along. Martin Luther King Jr was an integrationist. He believe in one American society based upon the promises of the founding fathers of America that all men were created equal and had the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness. He believed that it was Black people’s right to be first class citizens of America and all that it entailed. After Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam he went to Mecca to complete one of the five pillars of Islam which is â€Å"El Hajj† The holy pilgrimage. After that experience he begin to take on a world view against injustice and tyranny everywhere. Martin Luther King jr take on a similar stance sparked by the Vietnam war. He too saw the importance of fighting injustice worldwide.

Monday, January 6, 2020

3 Parts of a Nucleotide and How They Are Connected

Nucleotides are the building blocks of the DNA and RNA used as genetic material. Nucleotides also are used for cell signaling and to transport energy throughout cells. You may be asked to name the three parts of a nucleotide and explain how they are connected or bonded to each other. Heres the answer for both DNA and RNA. Nucleotides in DNA and RNA Both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are made up of nucleotides which consist of three parts: Nitrogenous BasePurines and pyrimidines are the two categories of nitrogenous bases. Adenine and guanine are purines. Cytosine, thymine, and uracil are pyrimidines. In DNA, the bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). In RNA, the bases are adenine, thymine, uracil, and cytosine,Pentose SugarIn DNA, the sugar is 2-deoxyribose. In RNA, the sugar is ribose. Both ribose and deoxyribose are 5-csrbon sugars. The carbons are numbered sequentially, to help keep track of where groups are attached. The only difference between them is that 2-deoxyribose has one less oxygen atom attached to the second carbon.Phosphate GroupA single phosphate group is PO43-. The phosphorus atom is the central atom. One atom of oxygen is connected to the 5-carbon in the sugar and to the phosphorus atom. When phosphate groups link together to form chains, as in ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the link looks like O-P-O-P-O-P-O, with two additional oxygen atom attached to each phosphorus, one on either side of the atom. ​Although DNA and RNA share some similarities, they are built from slightly different sugars, plus there is a base substitution between them. DNA uses thymine (T), while RNA uses uracil (U). Both thymine and uracil bind to adenine (A). How Are the Parts of a Nucleotide Connected or Attached? The base is attached to the primary or first carbon. The number 5 carbon of the sugar is bonded to the phosphate group. A free nucleotide may have one, two, or three phosphate groups attached as a chain to the 5-carbon of the sugar. When nucleotides connect to form DNA or RNA, the phosphate of one nucleotide attaches via a phosphodiester bond to the 3-carbon of the sugar of the next nucleotide, forming the sugar-phosphate backbone of the nucleic acid.